Cutter was the name of a retired veterinarian. He was a vet for 18 years on outback, presumably on Earth, and mostly castrated bulls.
He was incarcerated in Ursa Luna Penal Facility for unknown crime. Supposedly during Riddick's stay in the same prison he performed surgery that gave him his "eyeshine" in return for a pack of 20 Kool cigarettes. However, it would seem this is not true.